SMARTEnvi Project Partners Visited Krakow, Poland Solid Waste Management Company and a Plant
A visit by SMARTEnvi project partners, Pamukkale University and Denizli Metropolitan Municipality, was made to the Municipal Company of Cleaning Public Limited Company, which is 100% affiliated with Krakow Municipality and responsible for the management of municipal solid waste. A presentation about the urban solid waste management plan was made by the company manager, Marek Kabacinski, and the stages from the collection of solid waste to its disposal were explained in this presentation.
Agreements between the company and the residents of the city to collect waste from houses, sites and workplaces are made on an annual basis. An average of 5 €/person is paid every month to the households. Wastes are collected separately at the source as yellow (plastic, metal), blue (paper), green (glass), brown (green waste, park and garden waste) and black (mixed waste). The collection schedule for the location and time are determined on annual basis according to the colors of these boxes. Yellow, blue and green containers are brought to the solid waste sorting facility, where appropriate pellets are made and sent to the recycling facilities. Mixed wastes are disposed by landfilling in the sanitary landfill. Energy is produced by the production of biogas from this process. Additionally, the anaerobic treatment plant project to produce biogas from kitchen waste and reduce the amount of stored waste according to the European Union Framework Directive is at the planning stage. According to this directive, although the recycling targets were 50% in 2020, around 69% of waste was recycled. In general, wastes disposed of by landfilling are below the landfilling target. Compost is produced only from green waste. This compost is certified and used in the municipality’s park and garden areas, and the rest is sold for 1€/tonne to flower growers. High volume wastes such as furniture and electronic wastes are collected from the houses upon request. Unsuitable and bulky wastes are crushed in the shredding facility and then disposed in the incineration facility, and its energy provides 10% of Krakow’s electricity needs. The incineration plant is also operated by another company, which is 100% owned by the municipality. Inspections are carried out in 8000 residences and workplaces annually to check whether the wastes are collected appropriately at the source. 60 municipal police officers are on duty for these inspections, and the waste bins are checked regularly to check if they are separated by color. At the end of the inspections, in cases where it is determined that the improper waste was disposed according to the colors, a fine of 10-100 € is imposed.
After this presentation, the municipality’s recyclable waste sorting facility was visited. Afterwards, SMARTEnvi EU project was introduced. Photos from this activity and the technical visit are below.